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Precision Mechanical Machining VS Special Processing

March 13, 2023

Processing is also called mechanical processing, and the shape size and performance of the workpiece are used with mechanical equipment. Generally, processing can be divided into two methods: cutting and pressure processing. Sometimes with the development of workpiece processing, with the development of society, human technology is becoming more and more developed, and a large number of high -precision products are coming out. And the cornerstone manufacturing industry of all physical products is getting more and more fine! As a result, precision machinery processing and special processing are born!

1. Precision processing generally refers to the processing accuracy of 10 to 0.1 μm (equivalent to the IT5 level accuracy and the accuracy above IT5), and the surface roughness RA value is below 0.1 μm Ultra -fine research, sag belt grinding, mirror grinding and cold pressure processing. For key parts in manufacturing industries such as precision machine tools, precision measuring instruments, such as precision screws, precision gear, precision worm wheels, precision guide rails, precision rolling bearings, etc., they occupy a very important position in the current manufacturing industry.

Ultra -precision processing refers to the size of the size of the processing parts of 0.1 to 0.01 μm, and the surface roughness RA value is 0.001 μm.

2. Special processing refers to the use of electrical energy, sound energy, light energy, electrochemical energy, thermal energy, and special mechanical energy to process materials. It has many characteristics compared to the traditional cutting processing method: there is no significant cutting force between the tools and workpieces during the processing process; Complex faces.

(1) The characteristics and applications of electric spark processing

Electric spark processing is to use the electrical corrosion phenomenon of the pulse between the tools and the workpiece (positive and negative electrodes) to remove the excess metal on the workpiece to meet the requirements of the part size, shape and surface quality.

Electric sparks can process any hard, crispy, soft, and high melting point conductive materials, such as quenching steel, hard alloy, etc.; No cut force during processing is conducive to small holes, thin walls, narrow grooves, and various complex cross -section holes The processing of the cavity parts is also suitable for precision and minor processing; pulse parameters can be adjusted arbitrarily, and can be continuously carried out on the same machine tool. ), The surface of the workpiece processing is almost not affected by heating; the direct use of power processing is easy to achieve automatic control and processing automation.

(2) Electrolysis processing

Electrochemical processing uses the principle of anode solubility in the electrolyte in the electrolyte, and forming metal workpieces.

There is no cutting force and cutting heat during electrolytic processing, and will not produce defects such as residual stress, processing hardening or burns. However, the electrolyte has a corrosive effect on the machine tool. It is necessary to take anti -corrosion measures, the treatment and recycling of electrolytic products, and serious environmental pollution.

Electrolytic processing is suitable for difficult cutting materials with high hardness, high strength and high toughness, such as quenching steel, heat alloy, stainless steel, titanium alloy, etc. It can be used for processing pores, type cavities, complex faces, deep pores, and burrs and engraving, such as barrels and cannons. Compared with electrical spark processing, electrolyte processing has high productivity, low processing accuracy, and high cost of machine tools. It is used in batches of large -scale production.

(3) Ultrasonic processing

Ultrasonic processing is an ultrasonic frequency vibration with the end surface of the tool, so that the suspended abrasive in the working solution is impacted to the surface of the workpiece and realizes it.

Ultrasonic processing is mainly used for processing various hard and crisp materials, especially non -conductive materials that cannot be processed by electric sparks and electrolytes, such as glass, ceramics, quartz, agate, gemstones, diamonds, pupa, silicon, etc. Ultrasound processing has lower productivity than electro -spark and electrolytic processing, but processing is high. Therefore, for some high -precision hard alloy stamping molds and brushed molds, it is often used for rough processing and semi -precision processing of electric sparks and processing with ultrasound. The macro force of the workpiece materials during ultrasonic processing is small and the heat has a small effect. It can process some parts such as thin walls, narrow seams, and thin pieces that cannot withstand large mechanical power.

(4) Laser processing

Laser is a monochrome with high brightness and good direction. Due to the small laser scattered angle, the laser focuses on a series of minimal light spots with a diameter of only tens of microns through a series of optical systems. The power density at the focus can reach 108 ~ 1010 W/CM2, and the temperature is about 10,000 degrees. At this high temperature, any hard material will melt and vaporize instantly, and produce a strong shock wave, causing the melting and vaporized substance explosion to spray out.

Laser processing does not require processing tools, no tool loss, no dandruff. Laser can punch holes and cutting almost all materials, and can also process the workpiece through glass materials, but the laser processing has high accuracy, complex equipment, and high processing costs. In the peak season, it is necessary to improve the efficiency of production manufacturers. What are the general methods of machine processing manufacturers to provide production efficiency?

First, the choice of equipment must be reasonable. The processing of coarse machines is mainly to cut off the balance of most mechanical processing. There is no need to perform high -precision machine processing. The rough processing should be greater power and high -precision machine tools. The completion process should continue to use high precision machinery. Rough machine processing and precision machine processing are on different machines, giving full play to the equipment capabilities and extending life precision machine tools.

2. In order to ensure the processing accuracy of the precision parts, the processing of the coarse metal mechanical parts. Due to the processing of coarse machines and large cutting volume, the cutting force, clamping force, and the processing surface of the heat mechanical parts have obvious processing sclerosis. Under the large internal stress of the workpiece, after the coarse machine processing is completed, the accuracy of the continuous parts is accuracy of the continuous parts. Soon the heavy distribution of stress was lost. For machine processing of some high -precision parts. After rough processing and fine processing, the low temperature annealing process should be arranged or in time to eliminate internal stress.

Third, the processing process of precision parts is often arranged for heat treatment. The place configuration is as follows: Thermal treatment process, metal that improves its cutting process, such as annealing, positive fire, fire, and general configuration in the machine processing to eliminate internal stress, such as timely processing. In order to improve mechanical properties, such as carburizing quenching and ignition, it is generally arranged in the processing of mechanical parts. After the heat treatment, it deforms very large, but it must be arranged in the processing procedure.